Contents
The Romanian village ought to receive more support from city dwellers
The address delivered by His Beatitude Daniel, Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church, opening the spring session of the Pastoral-missionary Conference of the Clergy of Bucharest Archdiocese - Aula Magna „Patriarch Teoctist”, the Palace of the Patriarchate, Bucharest, 13-14 May 2019...................... 7
 
Events
Vernissage of „Anastasis” exhibition of icons at the Palace of the Patriarchate (9 May)
Deacon Alexandru Briciu............................ 19
Message addressed by His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel to Her Majesty Margareta, Custodian of the Crown of Romania, on the Romanian Monarchy Day (10 May)................ 24
The historical patronal feast celebrated at the Patriarchal Cathedral (21 May) - Marinel Laurențiu Marcu, Arhidiacon Ştefan Sfarghie.. 26
The eighth edition of the International East-West Symposium of New Testament Scholars (26-31 May) - Mihail Mere-Albe, Bogdan-Gabriel Rădășanu.............. 35
Educating the young generations to preserve and foster ancestral traditions
Address delivered by His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel on the International Children’s Day (1 June 2019) and the Sunday of Parents and Children (2 June 2019)       41
Priceasna [the Eucharistic hymn] is both prayer and plainly formulated chant
Address of  His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel for the ninth edition of the „Good Shepherd” Eucharistic Hymns Festival organized by Apărătorii Patriei II – „The Holy Hierarch Ambrosius” Parish, Deanery Sector IV Bucharest, held at „Dimitrie Gusti” National Village Museum - Bucharest, 26 May 2019        43
Father Nicolae Achimescu – an erudite professor, a honest person and a confessor theologian
Address of His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel for the funerals of Father Nicolae Achimescu, professor at the Faculty of Orthodox Theology „Patriarch Justinian” in Bucharest - „St Catherine” Church, Bucharest, 30 May 2019.....    45
The Patriarch of Romania consecrates St Spyridon the New Church (17 June) - Deacon Alexandru Briciu........................... 52
Faith and health in the Romanian village
Address delivered by His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel opening the Conference „Faith and Good Health in the Romanian Village”, the Palace of the Patriarchate, Bucharest, 21 June 2019..................... 63
Freedom and Responsibility in digital media
Address delivered by His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel on the World Social Media Day, 30 June 2019................................... 68
The Patriarch of Romania celebrates his 68th birthday (22 July) - Archdeacon Ştefan Sfarghie...................... 70
 
The work agenda of the Patriarch of Romania
The work agenda of His Beatitude Daniel, Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church (1 May - 31 August 2019).................. 79
 
Studies
The dialectics of rural life. The village as a lasting unit of national identity - Prof. Ilie Bădescu, Correspondent member of the Romanian Academy...................101
 
Carosus of Scythia Minor, archimandrite in Constantinople and a participant in the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon – from the Nicene faith to the defense of Eutychius, to his condemnation and adherence to the decrees of the Council of 451
Pr. Assoc. Prof. Marin Cojoc......................131
Man’s ministry to the created world - PhD Student Cosmin Iulian Cîrstea, PhD Student Gheorghe-Vlăduț Rădulescu.........................141
 
Romanian orthodox Diaspora
Tribute to Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Florence  (4 May) - Sorin Ioniţe................................................................. 159
The eparchial assembly of the Archdiocese of Germany, Austria and Luxembourg (10-11 May) - Hieromonk Ioan Popoiu, Deacon Alexandru Briciu....... 162
The Romanian village celebrated in the USA - Deacon Gheorghe Anghel, Bogdan-Gabriel Rădășanu 166
 
Orthodoxy in dialogue
The Executive Committee of the Joint Working Group between the Roman Catholic Church and the World Council of Churches meets in Warsaw, Poland (6-8 May)
Basilica News Agency of the Romanian Patriarchate.... 173
A delegation of the Russian Patriarchate visits the Romanian Patriarchate (9 May) - Andrei Butu.......................... 176
Visit to the Romanian Patriarchate of Mr Samuel Brownback, the American Ambassador for religious freedom (10 May)
The Press Office of the Romanian Patriarchate.............. 180
Historic meeting between His Sanctity Pope Francis and His Beatitude Daniel, Patriarch of Romania (31 May) - Marinel Laurențiu Marcu................. 183
The neutral democratic state and autonomous religious denominations cooperate for the common good of society
Address delivered by His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel for the International Conference „The positive dimension of religious freedom: how can governments support religious organizations” – the Palace of the Patriarchate, 6 June 2019 210
The importance of State-Church cooperation in the European context
Address delivered by His Beatitude Daniel, Patriarch of Romania, opening the International Conference on the relationship between States and religious denominations in the European Union – the Palace of the Patriarchate, 7 June 2019...... 213
Christ’s merciful and sacrificial love for the mankind – grounds for the missionary ministry of the Church
The address of His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel for the participants in the 25th edition of the International Congress „Pavleia”, Veria, Greece, 25-29 June 2019......... 217
 
Restitutions
Secular priests in the life of the Romanian people - Pr. prof. Mircea Păcurariu.....................221
 

Întâlnirea dintre Sanctitatea Sa Papa Francisc și Preafericitul Părinte Daniel, Patriarhul României (31 mai)/ Historic meeting between His Sanctity Pope Francis and His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel


Marinel Laurențiu MARCU


În perioada 31 mai-2 iunie 2019, Sanctitatea Sa Papa Francisc a întreprins, la invitația autorităților Statului Român și a Bisericii Catolice din România, o vizită în țara noastră. În prima zi a acestei vizite, vineri - 31 mai, a avut loc și o întâlnire dintre Conducătorul Bisericii Romano-Catolice și Patriarhul Bisericii Ortodoxe Române. Delegația condusă de Papa Francisc a fost primită, la Palatul Patriarhiei, de Preafericitul Părinte Patriarh Daniel, în prezența ierarhilor Sinodului Permanent al Bisericii Ortodoxe Române. Evenimentul istoric a culminat cu vizita celor doi conducători de Biserici la Catedrala Națională, unde s-a desfășurat un moment solemn în spiritul păcii, frățietății creștinești și dialogului interconfesional.


Between 31 May-2 June 2019, His Sanctity Pope Francis conducted a visit to our country, at the invitation extended by the President of Romania, the Romanian state authorities and the Roman-Catholic Church of Romania. On the first day of this visit, Friday 31 May, the Head of the Roman-Catholic Church met with the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church. The delegation led by Pope Francis was welcomed at the Patriarchal Palace by His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel, in the presence of bishops, members of the Standing Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church. The introduction of the two delegations was followed by a private meeting between His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel and Pope Francis, then in Conventus Hall – the Patriarchal Palace, were delivered the official addresses on this occasion.

In his welcome address to the Head of the Roman-Catholic Church, Patriarch Daniel spoke about the meeting between Patriarch Teoctist and Pope John Paul II, 20 years earlier, and highlighted the historic, reconciliatory nature of that papal visit, stressing the importance of the current visit for safeguarding the Christian values, in the context of an increasingly secularized world. In his turn, His Sanctity Pope Francis reiterated the importance of the visit paid by Pope John Paul II to Romania, which he described as „an Easter gift, an event that contributed not only to renewed relations between Orthodox and Catholics in Romania, but also to the Orthodox- Catholic dialogue in general”, and he urged for „journeying together” towards the future, embarking on a common journey based on faith, trust and friendship, rediscovering the fraternity that unites us.

The address of His Sanctity was followed by an exchange of gifts between the two delegations, and a tour of Sanctus Princeps Stephanus Magnus, Sanctus Niceta Remesianae, Sanctus Johannes Cassianus Halls and Aula Magna Patriarch Teoctist in the Patriarchal Palace. The historic event culminated with the visit of the two Church Heads to the National Cathedral, for a solemn moment in the spirit of peace, Christian fraternity and interdenominational dialogue. In his address, His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel presented a brief history of the National Cathedral and thanked Pope Francis, expressing his deep gratitude for the „the liturgical spaces offered by Catholic communities to Romanian Orthodox parishes in Western Europe”. After his speech, the Patriarch of Romania offered to the Bishop of Rome a mosaic icon of the Holy Apostle Andrew, the patron saint of Romania and of the National Cathedral. Then Pope Francis delivered his address, commenting on the Lord’s Prayer Our Father. His Sanctity stressed the fraternity and communion of all those who pray together and worship the same Heavenly Father, and expressed his hope that „Romania may always be a home for all, a place of encounters, a garden where reconcilement and communion blossom”.

The two speeches were followed by the prayer Our Father uttered by the Bishop of Rome in Latin and Catholic Easter chants, and by the prayer Our Father uttered by the Patriarch of Romania in the Romanian language, and Orthodox Easter chants sung by the Psaltic Music Group Tronos of the Patriarchal Cathedral.

The event concluded with the Bishop of Rome and Patriarch of Romania coming out of the Cathedral and offering to the faithful again the Paschal greeting „Christ Is Risen!” , receiving the answer: „Truly He Is Risen!”. Leaving the National Cathedral, Pope Francis was driven in an open car to „Saint Joseph” Roman-Catholic Cathedral in Bucharest, greeting the people present around the Cathedral and along the way to the Catholic place of worship.

In conclusion, on the occasion of the visit paid by His Sanctity Pope Francis to Romania, the Romanian Orthodox Church and her Head, His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel, together with the Romanian state officials, acted again as messengers proclaiming our common pursuit of peace and collaboration between peoples and religions, of brotherly love and mutual respect among Christians, of constant support for a genuine interdenominational dialogue.


Marinel Laurențiu Marcu – secretar de redacție al Revistei Biserica Ortodoxă Română din cadrul Departamentului Editurile Patriarhiei; Doctorand în cadrul Şcolii de Studii Avansate a Academiei Române.

E-mail: marinellmarcu@patriarhia.ro


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Statul democratic neutru şi cultele religioase autonome cooperează pentru binele societăţii în general/The neutral democratic state and autonomous religious denominations cooperate for the wellbeing of society in general


Cuvântul Preafericitului Părinte Patriarh Daniel rostit la Conferința internațională „Dimensiunea pozitivă a libertății religioase: cum pot guvernele să sprijine organizaţiile religioase”, Palatul Patriarhiei, 6 iunie 2019/Speech of His Beatitude Daniel, Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church, at the International Conference „The Positive Dimension of Religious Freedom: How can governments support religious organizations”, Palace of the Patriarchate, Thursday, 6 June 2019


On this great feast day for Orthodox Christians, the Ascension of the Lord, we address the greeting to all of you: Welcome! to the Palace of the Patriarchate, the venue of an important event on the agenda of the Romanian Presidency of the Council of the European Union.The International Conference on The Positive Dimension of Religious Freedom: How can governments support religious organizations, which is now starting, is organised by the State Secretariat for Religious Denominations, in cooperation with the Romanian Patriarchate.The theme of religious freedom and of cooperation between states and religious communities is one of great relevance in this period which, although it is called post-modern, cannot ignore one of the essential features of the human person, namely the religious or spiritual dimension.The Church first looks to God and to its own believers, is careful to fulfil its spiritual mission of gathering persons and peoples into the love of the Most Holy Trinity, but it is also concerned with helping those in poverty, sickness, loneliness or despair.The Church fulfils its spiritual and social purpose irrespective of state political ideology, which has often been anti-religious or anti-Christian in recent centuries.Distinct and autonomous, yet, Church and State are serving the same citizens, each in its own way, proving over time that they can cooperate for the common good of society.After the fall of the communist regime in 1989, Romania for the last three decades has attained important social achievements as a result of the cooperation between the State and recognised religious denominations, as well as due to the practical cooperation between different religious communities.In 2005, as the head of the delegation of the Romanian Orthodox Church, along with representatives of the other recognised religious denominations in Romania, at the invitation of the State Secretariat for Religious Affairs, we participated directly in the elaboration of the Law 489/2006 on the Freedom of Religion and the General Status of Religious Denominations.This successful joint approach represented an important democratic exercise and inter-institutional, inter-confessional and inter-religious cooperation, unprecedented in our country.The organic law on the general regime of religious denominations, which we referred to, entered into force in January 2007, immediately after Romania’s accession to the European Union.This law has developed the principles contained in Article 29 of the Romanian Constitution, namely freedom of religious belief and freedom of religious denominations, the autonomy of religious denominations in relations to the State, and the State’s support given to the religious denominations, recognizing their contribution to the life of society.Thus, in Romania, the State is neutral in relations to the religious denominations and the religious denominations are autonomous, but they cooperate with the State for the wellbeing of society in general.The overall relations between the State and the recognised religious denominations in Romania are inspired by different European models, especially German, and the motivation of direct financial support or tax incentives for religious denominations consists of the application of certain principles such as: the principle of active pledge of the fundamental right to freedom of religion; the principle of recognising the public utility of religious denominations; the principle of cooperation between states and religious communities; the principle of respecting the right of ownership and of the compensation of the goods taken over by the State (in the case of the Romanian Orthodox Church, the takeover took place in successive stages, starting with 1863, through the secularisation or nationalisation of the church properties).Regarding the theme of this international conference, namely, how can governments support religious organizations, we consider that the experience of the last decades in Romania is one of social partnership, more specifically cooperation for the benefit of society in general.Numerous ecclesiastical historical monuments have been consolidated and restored, new churches have been built (since the number of Orthodox believers doubled between 1948-1989), an important social and medical assistance structure of the Church is currently functional, theological and confessional institutions for education have been established throughout the country, and Romanians from abroad are helped in their efforts to maintain their religious, cultural and linguistic identity.These achievements are also due to the constant support of the Romanian State, through the Romanian Government – the State Secretariat for Religious Denominations and other central and local public authorities. With gratitude for this support, we want to continue and intensify this beneficial cooperation for the Romanian people.We hope that this international conference, bringing together heads and delegates of specialised departments in the protection of freedom of religion in several EU member states, will be an opportunity for dialogue, promotion, and greater cooperation between the State and religious communities for the wellbeing of society in general.


Preafericitul Părinte Daniel, Patriarhul Bisericii Ortodoxe Române,
este membru de onoare al Academiei Române și autor a zeci de lucrări și peste 1.ooo de studii și articole în periodicele din țară și străinătate.
E-mail: cabinet.patriarhal@patriarhia.ro

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Importanța cooperării dintre Biserică și Stat în context european/
Importance of Church-State cooperation in the European context


† Daniel, Patriarch of Romania

Cuvântul rostit de Preafericitul Părinte Daniel, Patriarhul României, în deschiderea Conferinţei Internaţionale privind relaţiile dintre Stat şi denominaţiunile religioase în Uniunea Europeană, Palatul Patriarhiei, 7 iunie 2019/
Opening address by His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel of Romania at the International Conference on the relations between the State and religious denominations in the European Union, at the Palace of the Patriarchate, Friday, June 7, 2019.

According to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), as amended by the Treaty of Lisbon of 2007, ‘The Union respects and does not prejudice the status under national law of churches and religious associations or communities in the Member States’ (article 7, paragraph 1 TFEU). Thus, ‘recognising their identity and their specific contribution, the Union shall maintain an open, transparent and regular dialogue with these churches and organisations’ (article 17, paragraph 3 TFEU).
Therefore, in the European Union there is no ‘European model’ for the relationship between religious communities and the political authority, but the legislative systems in force in the EU Member States oscillate from a radical separation to an almost complete identification between a particular religious community and a State. At the same time, the European Union aims to engage in dialogue with religious denominations so that they may express their specific contribution to the European construction.
Today there are four Member States with a majority Orthodox population in the European Union (Greece, Cyprus, Romania, and Bulgaria), where Autocephalous Churches are organized and operate, while in other Member States there are important Orthodox communities organized ethnically as autocephalous (Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia) or autonomous (Finland and Estonia). Also, in some Member States there are consistent Orthodox communities organized ethnically as diaspora (Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Austria). Romania, with a population of 16,307,000 Orthodox believers, is the largest country of the European Union with a majority Orthodox population.
In the Orthodox majority states, the Church-State relation originally followed the Byzantine principle of symphonia, that is, harmony, understanding and cooperation between two distinct institutions, which are united by the common social life of the people in their double status as citizens of the State and believers of the Church.
In the Byzantine perspective on society there were two hierarchical systems, one of the Church and the other of the Empire, coexisting in the same space, confessing a single faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world, and pursuing the same purpose: the union of the visible world with the invisible God. However, the two hierarchical systems of the State and the Church were conceived and understood as different and distinct, and any attempt to combine them proved to be unfortunate.
In this regard, a good example of the relationship between the two hierarchical systems was given by the Epanagoge or the Eisagoge (a codification of the Byzantine law promulgated in 886), in which legislators distinctly juxtaposed the two systems, without combining them. Hence, in the Byzantine Empire, although the Church cooperated closely with the imperial authority, it kept its autonomy as regards ecclesiastic activities. However, the Church-State symphonia has never been symmetrical in the sense of equality of the two institutions, but almost always asymmetrical, because the Church has always been organized and operated in the State and was constantly praying for state authorities.
This historical fact illustrates the Orthodox teaching that the Church manifests itself in human society, which is organized in a political community, that is, the place of the Church is always within the State. This relationship between the Church and the State is based on the Orthodox teaching that the Church is both a spiritual, sacramental or mystical reality, and an institutional, social reality, and man – as a subject of history – belongs to both the Kingdom of Heaven and to Caesar’s Kingdom (Matthew 22:21). From a practical point of view, this relationship takes place between certain limits and is based on mutually invoked prerequisites.
Therefore, the Orthodox model of the Church-State relationship includes both Church autonomy in its relation to the State and their distinct and limited cooperation in a spirit of mutual respect.
According to Orthodox ecclesiology, the Universal Church is defined as the communion of Autocephalous Churches that are in dogmatic, sacramental and canonical unity with each other. In practice, autocephaly represents the canonical status of a local Church that enjoys full church autonomy and has the right to choose its Primate (πρτοςprimus) by its own Synod of Bishops without any external interference. Consequently, the autocephaly of a local Church is also an expression of the concept of freedom in communion, that is, the freedom of local Churches towards one another, while preserving at the same time the unity of faith, sacramental life and canonical discipline.
This ecclesiological conception is based on the thorough experience Orthodoxy has in relation to the Mystery of the Most Holy Trinity, understood as the supreme communion of life and eternal love between equal and distinct divine Persons.
Therefore, the unity of the Church is the communion of the trinitarian grace-filled life communicated by the Holy Spirit to those who believe in Christ in order to reach communion with the Father. In this regard, trinitarian life is at the same time a source of and a model for ecclesial communion (John 17:21-22). As the Persons of the Most Holy Trinity are equal, distinct and consubstantial, so too the Church is understood as a communion of equal, distinct and consubstantial local Autocephalous Churches, meaning that each and every one of them separately and all together share the same fullness in the truth of faith, in sacramental life and in ecclesiastical discipline.
This means that every Autocephalous Church has the right to establish its relationship with the State in which it is organized and operates. In the European context, however, each Autocephalous Church must foster practical cooperation and Christian solidarity to unite the national freedom and the European co-responsibility of the Church.
Only five days before Romania’s accession to the European Union, Law no. 489/2006 was promulgated, which (re)introduced the system of recognized religious denominations, supplemented with some elements of Byzantine origin, especially with regard to the practical way of Church-State cooperation. This new law guarantees the autonomy of the recognized religious denominations in their relation to the State and regulates the distinct cooperation between the State and the recognized religious denominations, as well as their support by the State.
The new law also indicates the 18 denominations recognized in Romania, providing them the status of legal persons of public utility and recognizing their spiritual, educational, social-charitable, cultural role in the life of society, as well as their status as ‘factors of social peace’ in partnership with the State.
The current Romanian legislation on Church-State relationship therefore reflects to a certain extent the fact that Romania is the only country with a majority neo-Latin population of Orthodox tradition, belonging to the Christian East through its ecclesial life, but also to the West though its Latin linguistics. This unique specificity represents the personal responsibility of Romania to contribute both spiritually and culturally to the promotion of cooperation in the European Union, especially in terms of good cooperation between the State and religious denominations.
We congratulate the organizers of this international conference and we bless all its participants, expressing our hope that its results will contribute to a deeper understanding of the importance of the cooperation between the State and religious denominations in the European Union.


Preafericitul Părinte Daniel, Patriarhul Bisericii Ortodoxe Române,
este membru de onoare al Academiei Române și autor a zeci de lucrări și peste 1.ooo de studii și articole în periodicele din țară și străinătate.
E-mail: cabinet.patriarhal@patriarhia.ro


Ritmul dialectic al satului. Satul ca unitate dăinuitoare a identității de neam/The dialectics of rural life. The village as a lasting unit of national identity - Prof. univ. dr. Ilie Bădescu


 Prelegere susținută în cadrul Conferinţei pastoral-misionare semestriale de primăvară a clerului din Arhiepiscopia Bucureştilor, organizată la Palatul Patriarhiei, în ziua de 13 mai 2019, sub titulatura „2019 – Anul omagial al satului românesc (al preoţilor, învăţătorilor şi primarilor gospodari)”, și prezidată de Preafericitul Părinte Daniel, Patriarhul Bisericii Ortodoxe Române.


Keywords: 2019 - Solemn Year of the Romanian Village, peasant society, archetypal village, the dialectical rhythm of the village


Satul originar (arhetipal) este con-ziditorul unui mod de viață bazat pe nucleul deplinei armonii cu natura, cu omul și cu Dumnezeu. Din „pomul” vieții sătești au odrăslit toate ramurile culturii fondatoare ale comunităților omenești: cultura vieții, cultura foaierului familial, cultura gospodăriei, a bunei gospodăriri, cultura terapeutică a întregitei vindecări (trupească și sufletească), cultura vetrelor de așezare (sătești) sau a așezării adunate (opusă așezărilor risipite, adică pierdute în lume) și mai presus de toate, cultura fireștii purtări. Toate aceste muchii ale culturii sătești au crescut pe suportul sistemelor de pedagogie naturală, adică prin parenetica dreptarelor divine din toate lucrurile. Acesta este nucleul tuturor civilizațiilor istorice și dinamicile civilizaționale îl potențează ori îl șubrezesc, după caz. Studierea satului, ca tip de comunitate fondatoare (Ernest Bernea o denumește „comunitate de viață”), este o cale posibilă spre căutarea unghiului celui mai potrivit de abordare a crizei identitare prin care trec mai toate popoarele în era globalizării.

Ipoteza noastră, pe care o lansăm în acest studiu, este că satul reprezintă principala unitate dăinuitoare a identității de neam și totodată cadrul de viață străbătut de un ritm cosmic de la care nu l-a putut abate nicio civilizație în lunga succesiune a istoriei universale. Ritmul dialectic al satului presupune modul în care satul își reface echilibrul afectat de crize și presiuni din afara și din lăuntrul său.  Ritmul dialectic al satului este adeverit structural prin polaritatea dintre satul ce crește în jurul bisericii, din care iradiază harul lui Dumnezeu”, „satul-idee”, cum îl definește Blaga, și satul din istorie, căzut în istorie. Satul deține secretul unei capacități cosmocentrice de organizare intimă și colectivă încât și micul amănunt are demnitatea lui în această cosmologie socială. Modul în care satul a reușit să așeze viața în unități dialectice armonizate între ele și suprem cu Dumnezeu a ridicat civilizația sătească la nivel de arhetip și deci la rangul unui sistem de pedagogie teandrică de valoare universală, transistorică, a unui sistem învățătoresc în care sunt depozitate învățăturile asupra  modului corect de zidire a unei „comunități de viață”. Temelia perenității satului este rezemată pe credința puternică în Dumnezeu, în legătura lumii de aici cu lumea de dincolo, a rânduielii divine cu lumea umană. Prin fiecare dintre formele de manifestare ale ritmului dialectic al satului, ni se descoperă o învățătură esențială despre apărarea vieții prin care se adverește cultura vieții. Prin această particularitate, putem spune, fără riscul vreunei exagerări, că satul a fost primul dascăl al umanității. Și acesta a fost un învățător de valoare universală, iar marile științe despre om și societate și cultură s-au născut în tinda casei fără de ziduri a acestui învățător.Cu toată întăritura lui interioară, satul arhetipal este amenințat însă astăzi de cele trei mari pericole care lovesc imaginarul și pedagogia naturală de pretutindeni: statul magic, secularizarea (cu dimensiunea ei devastatoare, desacralizare lingvistică) și denaturarea vieții începând cu desuveranizarea sistemelor țărănești ale planetei. Unele dintre formele de exprimare ale dereglării raportului satului cu istoria sunt desțăranizarea, dezcopilărirea și deztinerirea satului. Desigur că fenomenul acesta nu este strict românesc, doar că România este dezarmată în fața lui. Declinul populației rurale într-o țară ca România este alarmant pentru că acolo trăiesc jumătate dintre români, o rezervă demografică esențială. Ruralul golit de populația sătească atrage un sistem supra-corporatist care va accelera decapitalizarea genealogică a României și va slăbi satul ca formulă de rezistență și de supraviețuire a proprietății identitare românești. Un alt dezechilibru al raportului satului cu istoria se referă la desuveranizarea gospodăriei țărănești și la pogresul corporațiilor agrare cu efecte ecologice devastatoare. Filosofia rurală a agrosistemului corporatist se află în conflict cu filosofia rurală a gospodăriei familiale țărănești. Una dintre formele dereglării relației gospodăriei familiale țărănești cu istoria se referă la presiunea filosfiei neoliberale de o înspăimântătoare cruzime care sună astfel: „ori creşti ori te dai la o parte”, care ne sugerează că „pe termen lung numai gospodăriile mari, cu un capital puternic, să aibă şanse de supravieţuire”.În fața unor asemenea pericole, hotărârea Sfântului Sinod al Bisericii Ortodoxe Române, la inițiativa Preafericitului Părinte Daniel, Patriarhul României, de a chema forțele lucide ale poporului român la o dezbatere și deci o conștientizare a unei chestiuni de o asemenea alarmantă însemnătate este axială pentru identitatea strategică a României la ceasul acesta al istoriei. Este urgentă o examinare înoită și completă a chestiunii satului ca tip de unitate socială și morală, ca loc al apărării frontierei Duhului în istoria și geografia spirituală a neamului românesc. În acest sens, Sfântul Sinod al Bisericii Ortodoxe Române a situat anul istoric 2019 în zariștea aionului ca să putem contempla cu deplină claritate și putere vizionară timpul cel trecător cu toate fețele lui, deopotrivă frumoase și urâte, cu luminile și desfigurările lui.


The original (archetypal) village produced a lifestyle essentially based on the perfect harmony between nature, man and God. The „tree” of rural life carried all the branches of the foundational culture of human communities: the culture of life, the culture of the family home, the culture of household management, of administration and stewardship, the therapeutic culture of healing (of body and soul alike), the culture of close-knit (rural) settlements (as opposed to settlements scattered across the world), and above all, the culture of normal behavior. All these aspects of the rural culture had been developed through natural pedagogy systems, that is, through the parenesis of the divine teachings contained by all things. This is the core of all historical civilizations, and their respective dynamics can either strengthen or weaken it. Studying the village as a type of foundational community (Ernest Bernea calls it a „life community”), is a possible way to find the best approach to the identity crisis faced by most peoples during the globalization era. The assumption put forth in the present study is that the village is the main lasting unit of the national identity and the life environment regulated by a cosmic rhythm, from which it could not be diverted by any of the successive civilizations known in universal history. The dialectic rhythm of the village life is evinced by the way in which the village is able to regain its balance affected by crises and tensions from without and from within. The dialectic rhythm of village life is structured around the polarity between the village centered around the church irradiating God’s grace - the „ideal village” as Blaga defines it, on the one hand, and the village living in history and subject to its hardships and failings, on the other hand. The village possesses the key to a cosmocentric ability of collective self-regulation so that even the smallest details have their importance within this social cosmology. The way in which the village has succeeded in organizing life in dialectic units in harmony with each other and in supreme harmony with God, has made rural civilization into an archetype elevating it to the condition of a trans-historical system of theandric pedagogy of universal value, a repository of knowledge about the correct manner of edifying a „life community”. The foundation of village perennity is unwavering belief in God, in the connection between this world and the afterlife, between the divine and the human. Every manifestation of the dialectic rhythm of the village, reveals a major principle underlying the culture of life. It is not an overstatement to say that by virtue of this trait, the village has been the first teacher of humanind. Its teachings have universal value and the great sciences of man, society and culture were born in the porch of this teacher’s house without tangible walls.

Despite its inner force, the archetypal village is today threatened by the three major dangers that challenge the collective imaginary and the natural pedagogy everywhere: the magic state; secularization (with its devastating process of linguistic desacralization); and the denaturation of life, beginning with the abolition of self-reliance of peasant houseolds. The alteration of the historical status of the village is manifest in the decline in the peasant population, especially in the number of children and young people dwelling in rural areas. Admittedly, this phenomenon does not affect only Romania, but our country is highly vulnerable to this challenge. The dwindling rural population in a country such as Romania is alarming, because half of the Romanians live in those areas, which contain an essential demographic supply. Rural areas depleted of their population attract a super-corporatist system which will accelerate the process, weakening the demographic capital of Romania and the village as a source of resistance and survival for the Romanian identity. Another imbalance in the status of our village and its historical role is caused by the fact that rural households can no longer be self-reliant while agrarian corporations thrive at the cost of devastating ecological effects. The rural philosophy of corporatist agrosystem is at odds with the rural philosophy of peasant family households. One aspect of the malfunctioning of the relationship between peasant family households and historical developments lies in the pressure put by the extremely cruel neoliberal philosophy according to which „one either grows, or is pushed away”, suggesting that „in the long run only the great households, possessing strong capital, have any chance of survival”.In face of such challenges, the decision of the Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church, at the initiative of His Beatitude Daniel, Patriarch of Romania, of calling the discerning members of the Romanian people to awareness of such urgent matters, is essential for the sense of strategic identity of Romania at this historical time. It is necessary to undertake a new, thorough investigation of the village as a type of social and moral unity, as a defense of the frontier of the Spirit in the spiritual history and geography of the Romanian people. This is why the Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church has placed the historic year 2019 in the horizon of eternity, so that we may contemplate clearly the vision of the passing time, with all its aspects – both beautiful and repelling, with its lights and shadows.


Prof. univ. dr. Ilie Bădescu - Membru corespondent al Academiei Române și director al Institutului de Sociologie al Academiei Române

E-mail: badescu@insoc.ro


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Carosus Din Schithia Minor, arhimandrit în Constantinopol și combatant la Sinodul IV ecumenic de la Calcedon – de la credința niceeană – la apărarea lui Eutihie, la condamnarea lui și la aderarea hotărârilor Sinodului din 451/ Carosus of Scythia Minor, archimandrite in Constantinople and a participant in the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon – from the Nicene faith to the defense of Eutychius, to his condemnation and adherence to the decrees of the Council of 451


Pr. conf. univ. dr. Marin Cojoc


 Despre Carosus, arhimandrit din Constantinopol, se știe cu oarecare probabilitate că era din Scythia Minor, de la Tomis. În mod sigur se știe că fusese botezat în capitala Scythiei Minor, la Tomis, așa cum declară el însuși în ședința a IV-a de la Calcedon din 17 octombrie 451 de către episcopul de aici, Theotim. El a apoi ajuns delegat la Sinodul IV Ecumenic de la Calcedon din 451 unde a protestat, la început, probabil influențat și de autoritățile imperiale, apărând vehement credința niceeiană și hotărârile de la Efes din 431 și argumentând că face aceasta pentru că el a fost botezat de către Sfântul Theotim de Tomis care l-a însărcinat să țină nealterată credința Sfinților Părinți de la Sinodul din Niceea din 325 și a celor adunați la Efes. Carosus alături de un alt arhimandrit din Constantinopol, Dorotheos, au fost foarte activi în disputele care s-au creat cu privire la dreapta credință. În Sesiunea a 4-a a sinodului IV Ecumenic (17 octombrie) el a apărat cu insistență credința niceeiană și cea astabilită la Efes în 431, a înclinat puțin spre credința eutihiană, apoi a acceptat credința de la Chalcedon și a apărat-o cu vigilență sacră.


Information on Carosus, archimandrite of Constantinople, is that he likely originated from Scythia Minor (Tomis), and it is certain that he was baptized in the capital of Scythia Minor - Tomis, as he himself declared in the fourth meeting of Chalcedon, on 17 October 451, to the local bishop Theotim. He was delegated to take part in the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, in 451 AD where he first protested, probably also under the influence of imperial authorities, and vehemently defended the Nicene faith and the decrees of the Council of Ephesus (431 AD), explaining his attitude by the fact that he had been baptized by Saint Theotim of Tomis who had charged him with keeping unadulterated the faith of the Holy Fathers of the Councils of Nicea (325 AD) and Ephesus. Carosus and another archimandrite of Constantinopol, named Dorotheos, took very active part in the disputes concerning the correct confession of the faith. During the fourth session of the Fourth Ecumenical Council (October 17) he insistently defended the faith defined at Nicene and at Ephesus in 431, then slightly inclined towards the Eutychian doctrine and then he returned to the doctrine of Chalcedon which he defended with saintly zeal.


Pr. Marin COJOC - conferențiar universitar doctor la Catedra de Istoria Bizanțului și Istoria Bisericească Universală a Facultății de Teologie Ortodoxă din cadrul Universității din Craiova

Locație: București; E-mail:marin.cojoc@yahoo.com


 

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Omul, ca preot al creației/Man’s ministry to the created world


Drd. Cosmin Iulian Cîrstea
Drd. Gheorghe-Vlăduț Rădulescu


 Keywords: man’s ministry to the created world, deification


După ce Dumnezeu a creat tot ce există a așezat în toată această plăsmuire făptura umană. Omul, adus la existenţă ultimul, ca o întregire şi ca un sens al făpturilor, a fost alcătuit ca împreună lucrător cu Dumnezeu pe pământ şi purtătorul de cuvânt al întregii creaţii în faţa lui Creatorului, ca solidar cu întreaga natură şi responsabil de ea în faţa lui Ziditorului. După cum spune Sfântul Maxim Mărturisitorul, creația se diviza în inteligibil și sensibil. Totodată, în universul sensibil pământul este separat de cer, iar paradisul era pus de o parte de restul lumii zidite. De asemenea, ființa umană era și ea divizată în două genuri, masculin și feminin. Adam era chemat să depășească aceste despărțiri printr-o lucrare conștientă, care să reunească în el toată creația, iar mai apoi să o dăruiască împreună cu sine lui Dumnezeu. Mai întâi se cerea depășită separația sexuală printr-o unire castă, mai deplină decât cea trupească. În al doilea rând, paradisul trebuia unit cu restul lumii pământești; în acest sens, omul trebuia, prin iubirea de Dunezeu, să îmbrățișeze natura, unindu-o cu paradisul pe care îl purta în el. În a treia etapă, prin duhul inserat în trupul său ar depășit spaţiul, unificând lumea sensibilă, pământul şi tăria lui. În etapa următoare, Adam ar fi pătruns în lumea cerească, trăind viaţa îngerilor și asimilând inteligenţa lor; așa ar fi unit în el lumea sensibilă și cea inteligibilă. În cele din urmă, Logosul Divin s-ar fi întrupat, făcând medierea dintre creat și necreat. Acum, omul cosmic, care a unit în sine toată creația s-ar fi dăruit în mod deplin lui Dumnezeu și ar fi putut să-i înapoieze întreaga Sa creaţie, în acest fel  primind de la El, în reciprocitatea iubirii, adică în har, tot ceea ce este Dumnezeu prin natură. Așa, în depăşirea separărilor primordiale dintre creat şi necreat, ar fi fost realizată îndumnezeirea omului şi, prin om, a întregului univers. Omul însă, a eșuat în misiunea lui de „preot al creației”, neînțelegând că acestă menire sfântă nu se poate realiza autonom de Dumnezeu. Astfel, Adam a alterat împreună cu natura umană, tot ce era ontologic legat de ea, adică toată creația. Singur și devenit exterior sieși, nu mai putea acum să restaureze totul, asă că misiunii întrupării Fiului lui Dumnezeu i-a fost adăugată și cea a răscumpărării din păcat, ir ceea ce n-a reuşit Adam să facă, a realizat Logosul întrupat, Iisus Hristos. Ceea ce îi rămâne omului de făcut este să îl lase pe Hristos să ia chip în el, să se unească cu Fiul lui Dumnezeu întrupat și astfel să hristifice întreaga zidire. În concluzie, veriga de legătură între Dumnezeu, singura Fiinţă veşnică şi lumea creată din nimic, fără a introduce nicio înrudire de natură, care să asigure totodată comunicarea de viaţă între ei, fără a distruge alteritatea de natură a lui Dumnezeu şi a creaţiei, este omul hristificat. Întreaga lume este un om mare în același fel în care omul este o lume în miniatură. Omul, deci, este inima întregului univers, care bate ca răspuns la bătaia eternă a „inimii” Creatorului și care trebuie să irige cu har izvorât din Dumnezeu, tot ce există.


God created everything in existence, then placed man in the center of His creation. Man, the last to be brought into existence, as a culmination and centerpiece, was meant to be a co-worker with God on the earth and a representative of the entire created world before the Creator, in solidarity with the entire nature, and to be responsible for it to its Maker. According to Saint Maximus the Confessor, the creation comprised the intelligible and the sensible realities. Within the sensible universe, the earth was separated from heaven, and the paradise was separated from the rest of the created world. Also, the human being was divided into the two genders – male and female. Adam was called upon to overcome these divisions through a conscious work that would bring together all creation and then become deified with it. Firstly, the sexual division was to be overcome by a chaste union, more complete than the bodily one. Secondly, the paradise was to be united with the rest of the earthly world; due to his love for God, man was called to embrace nature, uniting it with the paradise he carried within. Thirdly, through the spirit dwelling in his body, he would have overcome the limitations of space, unifying the sensible world, the earth and the heaven. As the next step, Adam would have joined the heavenly world, living the life of angels and assimilating their intelligence; thus he would have united in himself the sensible and the intelligible world. Ultimately, the Divine Logos would have become incarnate, in order to join the created to the uncreated. At this point the cosmic man, having reunited the entire created world within himself, would offer himself fully to God and would thus return the entire creation to Him, receiving in mutual love, through grace, everything God is in the nature. By overcoming the primordial separations between the created and the uncreated, man would have achieved deification for himself and for the entire universe. Man, however, failed in his ministry as a „priest of the created world”, he failed to understand that this holy mission cannot be accomplished independently from God and without Him. Thus, Adam altered the human nature and everything that was ontologically bound to it, that is, the entire created world. Alone and exterior to himself, he was no longer able to restore the world, so that upon His incarnation, the Son of God also took upon Himself the task of redeeeming the world. What Adam had failed to do, was achieved by the Incarnate Logos - Jesus Christ. Man’s mission now is to let Christ dwell within himself, to become united with the incarnate Son of God and thus to Christify the entire created world. In conclusion, the link between God – the only eternal Being, and the world created out of nothing, without any ontological relation, but ensuring the communication of life between them without abolishing the alterity of nature between God and the created world, is the Christified man. The entire cosmos is similar to the man, at a larger scale, just as man is a microcosmos. Man is the centerpiece of the whole universe, its heart which beats in response to the eternal beat of the Creator’s „heart” which irrigates everything with God’s grace.


Drd. Cosmin Iulian Cîrstea
Drd. Gheorghe-Vlăduț Rădulescu


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Preotul de mir în viața poporului român/Secular priests in the life of the Romanian people


Pr. prof. Mircea Păcurariu


Articol publicat în: Biserica Ortodoxă Română, Anul C, 1982, nr. 3-4 (martie-aprilie), pp. 275-284.


Prezentul articol înfăţişează doar câteva aspecte din lucrarea misionară, socială, culturală şi patriotică a preoţilor de mir ai Bisericii noastre din trecut. Este totodată un modest omagiu adus celor mai vrednici dintre ei, dar mai ales cu nădejdea că strădaniile lor pot constitui o pildă vrednică de urmat pentru slujitorii de azi şi de mâine ai altarelor noastre strămoşeşti. Activitatea preoţilor români a îmbrăţişat o gamă foarte variată de probleme. Ei au fost pre­zenţi, înainte de toate în viaţa spirituală a credincioşilor, contribuind la păstrarea tezaurului de credinţă ortodoxă. Pe lângă aceasta, mulţi dintre ei au adus şi o contribuţie de seamă la promovarea limbii literare, a literaturii româneşti, a învăţământului, artei şi vieţii social-economice. În acelaşi timp, prin activitatea lor patriotică, au sprijinit toate aspira­ţiile poporului român de dreptate socială şi independenţă naţională, aducând o contribuţie apreciabilă la făurirea statului român unitar.


The present paper dwells on aspects in the missionary, social, cultural and patriotic activity carried out by the secular priests of our Church in the past. It is also a tribute to the worthiest of them, in the hope that their endeavours can set an example to be followed by today’s and tomorrow’s celebrants at our ancestral Church altars. Historical documents reveal details on the priestly activity, as well as the extremely important role they had in the life of rural Romania and in the history of the Romanian people. The priests were elected by the faithful, from their own community, and recommended for ordination not on the grounds of their formal training, but especially for their exemplary life and their spiritual qualities. Priesthood was usually passed down from father to son, so that a parish could be shepherded for a long while (even centuries) by priests belonging to the same family. Despite a limited ability at preaching the evangelic truths due to the lack of extensive theological training, the Romanian priests preached the Gospel by their deeds, leading by the example of their own lives and the lives of their family members. Many Romanian scholars were born to priests’ families. For centuries, the priests were almost exclusively the educators of the Orthodox people, regulating the social life in their villages. The secular clergy had little theological education but was animated by strong faith and love for God and their fellow people, by which they contributed to the safeguarding and defense of Orthodoxy. Beside this natural role of the priests in the life of their parishes and parishioners, a great number of them exceeded the expectations pertaining to their office, and contributed to the cultural, economic, social and national thriving. Their role in fostering Romanian culture and language is noteworthy: secular priests were among the earliest manuscript copyists, and they circulated literary works in the Romanian rural areas, thus contributing significantly to the development of Romanian education. The first schools were established within the precincts of monasteries and parish churches. Some of the Transylvanian priests played a major role in the progress of Romanian printed press; newspapers and journals with economic, pedagogical, cultural contents were drawn up by priests-professors of theology, in addition to the theological and church publications. Many other priests concerned themselves with literature, history and art, thus contributing to the development of Romanian art and culture. Many priests were church founders, most of them having supervised construction works in their parishes, and thus contributing to the development of Romanian sacred architecture. Others have supervised the painting works, or have been church painters themselves. Some of the priests have contributed to the development of church music, others have been the people’s best advisors in economy and agriculture matters, and yet others promoted craftsmanship and crafts in Romania and helped organize Romanian craftsmen into associations. The work of Romanian priests covered a very wide range of activities. They were first and foremost present in the spiritual life of the believers, contributing to the perpetuation of the Orthodox faith patrimony. In addition, many of them also contributed significantly to promoting the literary language, Romanian literature, education, art and social-economic life. By their patriotic activity they supported all the Romanian people’s aspirations towards social justice and national independence and had a significant contribution to the creation of the unitary Romanian state.


Pr. prof. Mircea Păcurariu - (n. 30 iulie 1932, Ruși, Bretea Română, Hunedoara, România – d. 13 ianuarie 2021, Sibiu, România) a fost un profesor universitar de teologie, istoric și preot român, membru titular al Academiei Române din 2015. Specialist de renume în istoria Bisericii Ortodoxe Române.


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